Another Regenerative Medicine blood origin product similar to Platelet Rich Plasma is Autologous Conditioned Serum (ACS). The active compound in ACS is Interleukin Receptor Protein Antagonist (IRAP). IRAP serves to block the action of an interleukin, a pro–inflammatory protein, and thus reducing inflammation.
ACS has proven useful in the treatment of osteoarthritis, also known as degenerative joint disease, in the horse. There are at least three options for the processing of ACS. All of these routes require the collection of various quantities of blood, sometimes as much as 400ccs. The blood is incubated and then undergoes centrifugation to remove blood cells from the sample and to concentrate the protein. The final product is typically injected directly into the joint. Unused sample can be frozen for later use.
The recommended treatment protocol involves three intra articular injections at one week intervals. I have found this product to be especially useful in early stages of arthritis. One example can be found in performance horses that are beginning to demonstrate fetlock pain and inflammation. There is credible research that shows the anti-inflammatory effect may persist for up to one year.
ACS can also be used in small animals. In this case about 50mls of blood is collected and processed in the same fashion as the equine system. The ACS is then injected into arthritic joints.
ACS serves to reduce inflammation which slows degenerative changes, but does not heal pre-existing articular damage; it is, however, an effected option in the treatment of joint disease in companion animals.
— Dr. Joseph G. Yocum, Green Tree Animal Hospital